1000 Applications of GIS – Check how GIS is being applied in your Industry (3)


Continuing from the last post on 1000 applications of GIS in various industries.

Industries 21 – 30:

 

21.  Environment GIS Applications

368. Environmental Impact Assessment – Measuring anticipated effects on the environment of a proposed development project

369. Site Remediation – Removing contamination from a plot of land detailing risk exposure and an overview with maps.

370. Fire Growth Simulation – Extinguishing fires faster by understand how they grow in discrete steps bringing together wind, weather and fuel for the fire. (FireScience BehavePlus)

371. Surface Water Flow – Characterizing water flow to be identified as high consequence for oil spill mitigation

372. Dead Zones – Mapping out dead zones where marine life is unable to be supported.

373. Canadian Land Inventory – Charting out land capability to sustain agriculture, forestry and recreation.

374. Non-point Source Pollution – Modelling non-point source pollution like soil erosion and sedimentation which are often controlled by variables such as land use/cover, topography, soils and rainfall.

375. Wetland Inventory – Delineating wetlands by types and function. (National Wetlands Inventory)

376. Invasive Species Modular Dispersal – Modelling the spread of a species’ population distribution through time occupancy maps (GRASS GIS Species Dispersal)

377. Storm Water Runoff – Conserving nearby resources such as water and flora by better managing runoff.

378. Brownfield and Greenfield Sites – Digging up the background information (Phase 1) and conducting the necessary geo-technical analyses to explore economic opportunities at brownfield and greenfield sites.

379. Ozone – Motivating the world to do their part by mapping the spatial distribution of ozone concentrations.

380. SWAT Model – Testing the effectiveness of agriculture and environmental policies for pollution control systems in a given watershed. (mwSWAT Plugin in MapWindow – United Nations University)

381. Karst – Identifying known cave and karst resources into a sinkhole digitization database for best interstate alignment selection. (Karst Database)

382. Permafrost – Interpreting permafrost probability in the Yukon. (Yukon Permafrost Probability Map)

383. Traffic Sign Deterioration – Assessing the effects of air pollutants on traffic sign deterioration. (Traffic Sign Deterioration)

384. Impoundment Index Tool for Wetlands – Unearthing wetlands with Impoundment Index Tool to site potential wetland restoration projects, monitor wetland drainage and model beaver habitat. (Whitebox GAT Impoundment Index Tool)

 

22.  Forestry GIS Applications

385. Forest Inventory – Prioritizing timber harvesting units by referring to age class and forest type to better measure timber acreage and average estimates.

386. Forest Fires – Plotting out forest fires with MODIS. (University of Maryland Forest Fires)

387. Deforestation – Gauging deforestation using land cover change in time.

388. Reforestation – Recharging forests through tree planting planning on a map.

389. Forest Heights – Measuring tree heights with altimetry and noticing how trees generally differ 20m with taller ones at the equator. (GLAS Satellite)

390. Vertical Point Profile – Viewing vertical profile of 3D LiDAR points to better understand tree structure and height. (TNT LiDAR)

391. Cut Lines – Finding cut lines in ortho imagery to find easy access.

392. Tree Lines – Drawing tree lines in the Canadian Arctic.

393. Illegal Logging – Identify potential illegal activity with satellite data. (Global Forest Watch)

394. Forest Carbon Reserves – Sequestering carbon through forest reserves and carbon observed in atmosphere.

395. Agent-Based Simulation – Simulating the spread of an agent (like a fire) triggered by random events (such as lightning) on a raster landscape in discrete time. (GME Cellular Automata Model)

396. Global Forest Watch – Putting all the pieces together with an integrated forest watch online platform.

397. Drones for Indonesia Indigenous – Promoting sustainable forests using drones in Setulang village, Indonesia. (Drones for Indonesia)

398. Wildfire Rescue – Saving lives through real-time wildfire satellite monitoring.

399. Vegetation Potential – Analyzing tree growth & distribution of vegetation with west/east-facing and aspect data.

400. Leaf Area Index – Summing the total area of leaves per ground unit.

401. Amazon Rain Forest – Maximizing satellite potential viewing soil erosion, watershed destabilization, climate degradation, and species extinction in Brazil.

402. Remnant Rain Forest – Studying aspect data to find how remnants of rainforest are almost always found on east-facing slopes (with aspect) which are protected from dry westerly wind.

403. 4D GIS – Getting to know the XYZ’s with time of timber harvesting and subsequent vegetation growth.

404. Age of Trees – Inventorying the XY position and rings of trees in a database to understand its age.

405. Forest Disease – Mapping the impact of how forest infestations like the mountain pine beetle has on forests and the economy. (Google Fusion Tables – Disease Map)

406. Wildfire Simulation – Automating the spread of wildfire in time using the 3D virtual workspace of Capaware.

 

23.  Gaming GIS Applications

407. Oculus Rift – Building realistic 3D environments with Esri CityEngine because virtual reality is all about location and a sense of place. (Esri CityEngine and Oculus Rift)

408. Building Virtual Environments – Designing future buildings, roads, cities, and parks with video game contributions. (GIS and Gaming – Matt Artz)

409. Geoguessr – Embarking on an educational journey that takes you all over the world (Geoguessr)

410. Mercator Projection Game – Learning about shape, size, and conformity of the Earth with map projections.

411. Spatial Data Integration – Intersecting the gaming world with rich, real-world, spatial data integration.

412. Planet Hunters – Finding undiscovered planets with crowd-source style online games. (Planet Hunters)

 

24.  Gardening GIS Applications

413. Living Plant Collection – Managing garden collections and plant records with the ArcGIS Public Garden Data Model like the UC Davis Arboretum, Arnold Arboretum at Harvard University and Smithsonian Garden. (Public Gardens GIS)

414. Gardening Microclimates – Studying microclimates (temperature from large bodies of water, topography, urban areas trapping heat) to carefully choose and position their plants and make them thrive.

415. Information Delivery – Inspire and educate your visitors with intelligent web maps of your park or garden.

416. Weeds – Storing weeds and herbicide dosage in a database to manage effectiveness and control measures.

417. Roof Gardening – Assessing average temperatures by zoning, water availability and position sheltering to identify buildings with the greatest potential for rooftop gardens.

418. Garden Reporting – Creating data-driven reports and mapbooks on collections of plants about conditions and hazards.

 

25.  Geology GIS Applications

419. Drill Hole Planner – Drilling with 3D planning tools including depth, azimuth and positions. (MapInfo Discover 3D)

420. Aquifer Recharge – Determining potential aquifer recharge using steepness of slope and soil permeability

421. Well & Volumetric Data Visualization – Creating powerful, fast, customized 3D models with a fusion of geologic data, GIS data, well/borehole data, and point cloud data. (Voxler Golden Software)

422. Plate Wizard Project – Reconstructing converging and diverging plates through geologic time.

423. Geological Interpretation – Digitizing surficial geology (surface sediments, their morphology and properties) with air photo interpretation and field validation.

424. qgSurf – Interpreting geomorphological analyses based on their surface and orientation.

425. Marine Geology – Inventorying marine geology. (NOAA Marine Geology)

426. Geomorphology Features – Studying the nature and origin of landforms, including relationships to underlying structures and processes of formation. (SAGA GIS Morphometric Features)

427. Dip and Strike – Plotting dip and strike readings and their geological orientation with rotational symbols.

428. Digital Rock Engineering – Tunneling underground with attention to existing topography and its surrounding which includes above-ground and underground structures

429. Aeromagnetic Anomalies – Correlating aeromagnetic anomalies with surface geology in tectonically active region.

430. Continental Drift – Measuring tectonics plate movement with GPS

431. EnterVol Geology – Creating full 3D, volumetric models of geology direct from collected data integrating lithology data with surfaces. (EnterVol Geology)

432. Subsurface Mapping – Mapping the subsurface through well-log data by drillers with standard lithological terms and classification system

433. Landform Classification – Classifying landforms with qualitative analysis of the surface like summits, passes, convex/concave break lines, crests and more with gvSIG geomorphology tools.

434. Geologic Structure – Using photogrammetry in inaccessible regions in 2D and 3D cross-sections for geologic structure mapping. (Hexagon Geospatial Photogrammetry)

 

26.  Geostatistics

435. Spatial Autocorrelation – Testing whether the observed value of a variable at one locality is independent of the values of the variable at neighboring localities. (GeoDa Spatial Autocorrelation)

436. Data Mining – Automating the search for hidden patterns in large databases

437. Spatial Regression – Building spatial regression to models for estimating the relationship between spatial variables. (GeoDa Spatial Regression)

438. Zonal Statistics – Summing, averaging or finding the range, minimum or maximum in a given range.

439. Hexagon Tesselation – Defining sampling locations, helping to ensure that all regions within the study area are represented by the sampling results. (Hexagon Tesselation)

440. First Law of Geography – Using Tobbler’s First Law of Geography in analysis- “Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things.”

441. Semi-variogram – Graphing the variance in measure with distance between sampled paired locations.

442. Space-Time Cube – Binning data (netCDF) into a cube input and running statistics, trends and hot spot analyses over time. (ArcGIS Space-Time Cube)

443. Map-ematics – Making math operations in maps like adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, exponentiation, root, log, cosine and differentiation (Map-ematics – Joseph Berry)

444. Kriging – Interpolating unknown measurements using kriging and other techniques. (Kriging – GRASS GIS)

445. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) – Combining input layers and a table with a number of factors comparing their comparative weights to calculate a new layer as a linear combination of the input layers.

446. Ordered Weighted Average (OWA) – Calculating the weighted average of a group of layers based on the order of values. (OWA – gvSIG)

447. Fishnet – Creating a fishnet to correlate coefficient between boating accidents and dams using a fishnet.

448. Geospatial Modelling Environment – Leveraging open source software R as the statistical engine to drive powerful analysis tools in ArcGIS.

449. Principal Components Analysis – Reducing dimensions with Principal Components Analysis. (Principal Component Analysis)

450. Data Visualization in R – Writing each line of code to programmatically create maps (R Data Visualization – Robin Lovelace)

451. Fuzzy Logic – Applying fuzzy logic with degrees of truth because often do not have clearly defined boundaries.

452. Pivot Tables – Generate dynamic pivot tables in QGIS. (QGIS Group Stats Plugin)

453. Monte Carlo Simulation – Modeling spatial phenomena in with simulation models.

454. Minkowski Generalization – Determining how complicated object are with Minkowski fractal dimension (Minkowski–Bouligand dimension QGIS plugin)

455. Map Algebra – Applying local, focal and zonal functions techniques. (Amazon Book – Dana Tomlin)

 

27.  Groundwater GIS Applications

456. Darcy Flow – Examining the movement of groundwater flow through coarse materials like sand.

457. MODFLOW – Modelling groundwater demand and predicting impact of groundwater demand in basins. (Aquaveo Water Modeling)

458. Groundwater Availability – Analyzing land use practices with water availability and quality.

459. Aquifer Recharge – Measuring permeability recharge and quantifying growth over time.

460. Groundwater Plume – Delineating groundwater contamination and its change.

461. Hydrostratigraphy – Identifying mappable units on the basis of aquifer hydraulic properties.

462. DRASTIC – Evaluating the vulnerability of pollution of groundwater resources based on hydrogeological parameters.

463. 3D Borehole – Symbolizing sub-surface data like bore holes magnitude with inverted depths.

464. Groundwater Volume – Determining to drill a new well by examining existing groundwater and surface water.

465. Stratigraphy – Plotting boreholes, cross section and well logs. (Golden Software Strata)

466. Contamination – Evaluating the risk of impact for the construction and situating industrial plants, landfills, agricultural activities and other potential groundwater contamination sources

467. Porous Puff – Calculating mass per volume of a solute at a discrete point into a vertically mixed aquifer with the ArcGIS Groundwater Tools.

468. Shallow Slope Stability (SHALSTAB) – Computing grid cells that are critical shallow groundwater recharge values. (SAGA GIS SHALSTAB)

 

28.  Health Mapping

469. HealthMap – Delivering real-time, global disease monitoring (HealthMap)

470. Centre for Disease Control (CDC) – Serving county-level maps of heart disease and stroke by race/ethnicity, gender, and age group, along with maps of social and economic factors and health services for the entire United States or for a chosen state or territory. (Interactive Atlas of Heart and Stroke)

471. Leukemia Research – Investigating leukemia clusters with proximity to transmission lines.

472. John Snow – Forging a whole new field of study (epidemiology) by studying the spatial distribution of cholera cases and identifying the source of the outbreak as the public water pump on Broad Street.

473. Ebola – Mapping the change of confirmed and probable cases of Ebola over time. (World Health Organization)

474. Distance to Health Care – Finding the closest doctor is a spatial problem

475. Vital Records – Recording of events, such as births and deaths that are maintained by public health agencies.

476. Lead Concentrations – Correlating how children with lead poisoning were found to be closer to an old lead refinery.

477. Cluster Analysis – Identifying built environmental patterns using cluster analysis and GIS: relationships with walking, cycling and body mass index. (Cluster Analysis)

478. Euclidean Distance – Finding the distance to disposal sites during an avian flu outbreak.

479. Disease Surveillance – Monitoring West Nile Virus with GIS on handheld devices.

480. Asthma – Connecting the dots of asthma and air pollution.

481. Epidemiology – Tracking disease and epidemiological information in a spatial database. (CDC Epi-Info)

482. UV Exposure – Exposing the risks of harmful UV rays with birth rates.

483. Mobile Flu Shots – Determining an optimal site location for mobile flu shot vehicles to service where demand is needed most with location-allocation.

484. Geomedicine –Tracking patient’s location history to determine if environmental and industrial hazards put them at risk for certain types of diseases

485. Madrid’s Air – Visualization Madrid´s air (gases, particles, pollen, diseases, etc) with the aim to make visible the microscopic and invisible agents. (Madrid’s Air Map)

486. Ambulance Response – Responding to emergencies faster with the quickest geographic route.

487. Infant Mortality – Track child immunizations with mortality rates.

488. Food Trust – Overlapping factors like poverty and obesity, fresh supermarkets, diet-related disease – space to target for policy-makers

489. Public Health Informatics – Ensuring patients get the care they need with public health care informatics.

490. Walgreens Prescription Mapping – Mapping and analyzing influenza based on the prescriptions customers are making to respond to the need of users more efficiently. (Walgreens Weekly Flu Index Webmap)

491. Disease Spread Patterns – Plotting ellipses for a disease outbreak over time to model its spread.

492. Walkability – Piecing together walkable neighborhoods with health diseases like heart disease, hypertension, obesity and even breast cancer.

493. Anti-Smoking Campaigns – Targeting Anti-smoking campaigns where it’s needed most and most visible to target audience.

494. Cancer Research – Researching cancer from the sky with the Landsat satellite. (Landsat Cancer Research)

495. Mosquitoes-borne Illness – Identifying areas with high indices of mosquito infestation and interpreting the spatial relationship of these areas with potential larval development sites such as garbage piles and large pools of standing water.

496. HIV AIDS Database – Making the distribution of HIV/AIDS to manage treatment.

497. Tele-medicine – Quantifying populations and health care availability when distance separates patients and health care providers.

 

29.  History GIS Applications

498. Shipwrecks – Documenting the remains of shipwrecks, aircraft, hulks, lost anchors and any other objects on the seabed through the SHIPS Project. (SHIPS Project – Shipwrecks Mapping)

499. American Museum of Natural History – Apply biodiversity information to collect, organize and analyze biological and environmental data with the aim to provide new insights in conservation, ecology and evolution. (American Museum of Natural History)

500. Topoview Slider Publishing maps with a slider style map to see how an area looked before development and how it changes over time. (USGS Topoview)

501. Micronesian Navigational Chart – Navigating by canoe using stick charts as ocean swell patterns.

502. Historical Photos – Geo-locating historical photos in augmented reality. (WhatWasThere application)

503. Babylonians – Etching the lay of the land on clay.

504. Old Weather – Tracking past ship movements and telling the stories of the people on board by studying weather patterns. (Old Weather)

505. Pilgrimages – Setting foot on a pilgrimage and mapping the distances traveled.

506. Boundary Changes – Carving out how boundaries change in time such as after World War II.

507. Spy Glass – Time-travelling back to 1836 in New York powered by Esri. (Smithsonian Institution)

508. Industrial Revolution Radioactivity – Putting radioactivity on the map since the industrial revolution.

509. 3D Historical Fly-through – Soaring through historical imagery with ArcScene.

510. Smoke Signals – Using viewsheds to put yourself in Native Americans shoes when smoke signals were used.

511. Ancestry – Surveying through ancestry with geophylogeny – the evolution and geographic spread of common ancestry and geographic connectedness.

512. ArcGIS Online Historical Maps – Exploring the old USGS historic maps. (USGS Historic Maps)

513. Manhattan Immigration Patterns – Showing how immigrants in Manhattan varied not only through space, but also time. (Amazon Book: Past Time, Past Place: GIS For History)

514. Aztec vs Mexican Last Names – Aligning current place-names to historical place-names to understand the ancient geography of Aztec culture. (Aztec and Mexican Last Names)

515. Witchcraft Accusers – Gathering the geographic location of the accusers and accused during the Salem witch trials to show inter-family feuds were a strong case for the trials instead of hysteria among young girls. (Salem Witch Trials)

516. Cultural Preservation – Preserving historic properties whose documentation must still be located and entered into this GIS.

517. Pangea – Drawing the different stages of the continental evolution from Pangea to the Earth we see today.

518. Napolean’s March to Moscow in 3D – Visualizing troop movement, cities, basemaps, temperature in time slices using Esri’s CityEngine Napolean’s March to Moscow. (Napolean March in 3D)

519. Georeferencing Historical Imagery – Straightening historical imagery using georeferencing.

520. Human Activity Patterns – Engraving activity on maps showing human movement patterns with time-enabled GIS.

521. Land Bridges – Agreeing on an acceptable term for “land bridge” – which was an area available due to the water tied up in ice sheets.

522. Lewis and Clark – Charting out the Lewis and Clark expedition.

 

30.  Hydrology GIS Applications

523. Braided Rivers – Managing braided rivers with their complex geometry and state in flux.

524. Sedimentation Rate – Characterizing erosion and sedimentation with the Sediment Transport Index.

525. Catchment Areas – Delineating watershed catchment areas, where rainfall flows into a river. (Mapping Watersheds in Whitebox GAT)

526. Topographic Wetness Index – Combining slope and upstream area to give you relative measure of wetness as the first places where the ground saturates, begins to pool, and generates runoff. (Topographic Wetness Index – SAGA GIS)

527. Flow Direction – Coding the direction of flow with eight valid directions. (Flo 2D)

528. Flow Estimator – Estimating flow rates with a series of spatially-located gauging stations.

529. Height Above River – Generating predictive surfaces for plant species distribution modeling using high resolution DEM data. (LiDAR Height Above River)

530. Sinuosity – Measuring the degree of channelization and meandering for a given watercourse.

531. Stream Feature Extractor – Extracting stream features (wells, sinks, confluences etc.) from a stream network. (Stream Feature Extractor QGIS Plugin)

532. Hydrologic Volume – Measuring volumes for the Hydrologic Budget Equation and amount of precipitation in a given watershed.

533. HEC-HMS – Simulating the complete hydrologic processes of dendritic watershed systems with the HEC-HMS GIS-based methodology.

534. Flow Accumulation – Answering the question “where did water come from” by picking a point (a single cell in the DEM) and tracing backwards showing all the contributing cells. (TauDEM)

535. Scalgo – Understanding Earth’s hydrology as a function of topography using the SRTM DEM. (SCALGO)

536. GHydraulics – Analyzing water supply networks using EPANET. (Ghydraulics QGIS Plugin)

537. Aqueduct – Mining, Modeling and analyzing water risk with the current and future stresses. (Aqueduct Atlas)

538. Contour Lines – Delineating contour lines because floods follow contour lines.

539. Flood Extents – Digitizing flood extents worth satellite data like synthetic aperture radar.

540. BASINS (Better Assessment Science Integrating point & Non-point Source) – Running water quality assessments with land use, point source discharges, and water supply withdrawals.

541. Crayfish QGIS Plugin – Animating flood model outputs and flood propagation. (TUFLOW)

542. ArcHydro – Operating ArcHydro in ArcMap to delineate and characterize watersheds.

543. Drainage Channel Builder – Cutting a simple, trapezoidal channel in a DEM and calculate cut volumes. (Drainage Channel Builder QGIS Plugin)

544. HEC-RAS Flow Model – Predicting where the water will go (flooding) to prevent inundated roads and inaccessibility. (RiverGIS QGIS Plugin)

545. Horton Statistics – Calculating the number of streams, the average stream length, the average area of catchments for Strahler stream orders (ILWIS)

546. Flow Stations – Marking flow stations on a map.

547. Water Shortage – Modelling water shortage California

548. Upstream/Downstream – Finding the origin of water from a specific point. (Hydro Hierarchy)

549. MIKE21 – Simulating physical, chemical or biological processes in coastal or marine areas. (MIKE21)

550. Oxbows – Mapping the evolving process of how rivers change in time and become oxbows

 

(Credit: GISGeography.com)

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