Today, we continue from the last post on 1000 applications of GIS in various industries
Industries 11 – 20:
11. Consumer Science and Behavior GIS Applications
166. Data Analytics – Analyzing location-based information to reveal relationship between individuals, families, and communities, and the environment in which they live.
167. Huff Model – Calculating sales potential based on the Huff Model – an interaction model measuring the probabilities of consumers at each origin location patronizing a new store instead of other stores.
168. Consumer Profiling – Optimizing consumer profiling with location-based information on age, ethnicity, education, housing and more.
169. Retail Customer Segmentation – Segmenting markets by customer prototypes to improve the effectiveness of campaigns.
170. Buying Behavior – Correlating unthinkable variables like weather and location with buying behaviors to find sales opportunities.
171. Retail Store Movement – Detailing how customers move through retail stores, what they bought, rejected and looked at.
172. Real-Time Gas Prices – Crowdsourcing gas price updates at various gas stations on or along a route. (Waze Crowdsourced Gas Prices)
173. Store Placement – Guiding the placement of new stores by studying disposable income, population, or other variables to best serve the population.
12. Climate Change GIS Applications
174. NASA Earth Observatory – Exploring the causes and effects of climate change of our atmosphere, oceans, land and life through the use of satellite data. (NASA Earth Observatory)
175. Climate Change Skeptics – Turning skeptics into believers. Maps make climate change findings easier for skeptics to understand and accept. (Climate Viewer)
176. Earth Interactions – Modelling vegetation, atmospheric, rainfall and ecosystems to study their interactions simultaneously
177. Sea Level Rise – Collecting data to study sea level rise and climate change from Jason-3 satellite. (Climate Central)
178. County Climate – See for yourself how average maximum temperature rises/falls in each county in the United States. (County Climate)
179. Desertification – Understanding the underlying causes of desertification such as inappropriate agriculture practices, deforestation and drought.
180. Land Surface Temperature Change – Using map algebra to see how land surface temperature changes year-by-year. (Land Surface Temperature)
181. Piecing Together the Climate Change Puzzle – Combining various climate change data sets from various sources – for example relating land practices with atmosphere aerosols. (ArcGIS Online)
182. Pollution Modelling – Mapping air pollution sources and impacts on environment and people.
183. Google Planetary Engine – Seeing with your own two eyes the alarming changes of our planet. (Google Planetary Engine)
184. Bird Risk and Richness – Studying the effects of shrinking habitats on bird populations in the world. (Audubon)
185. Carbon Sequestration – Deferring global warming through carbon sequestration through location-based carbon management systems.
186. Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification – Modelling observed and projected climate change scenarios with variables such as population growth, economic development and varying energy use and technological innovations.
187. Smog – Squinting your eyes to see through all of that smog. (Mapbox Smog from Space)
188. Temperature Change – Measuring the effects of greenhouse gases being the main culprit of temperature change by mapping temperature at levels above the Earth’s surface.
189. Climate Change Design – Redesigning to accommodate climate change and pinpointing those locations needed most.
190. Land Change Modeller – Simplifying innovative land planning and decision support with IDRISI’s Land Change Modeler. It includes special tools for the assessment of REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) climate change mitigation strategies.
191. Vegetation Indices – Using remote sensing vegetation indices like NDVI, CTVI, NRVI and PVI to monitor vegetation change throughout time.
13. Crime GIS Applications
192. Crime Patterns – Responding to crimes with a data-driven approach and deliver tailored responses through rapid deployment of personnel and resources. (CompStat)
193. Incident Map – Keeping the community safer by streaming visual mediums for arson, assault, burglary, homicide, prostitution, robbery, theft, and vandalism in a city.
194. Auto Theft and Recovery – Tracking auto theft with GPS-enabled vehicles.
195. Sex Offenders – Tracking past criminal offenders with GPS movement patterns in relationship to schools and other entities.
196. Emergency Calls and Dispatch – An emergency call starts and ends at a location. GIS can manage both 911 calls and dispatching units to precise locations. (Computer-Aided Dispatch)
197. Law Enforcement Operations – Allocating and dispatching police officers where it’s needed most by studying crime activities.
198. Unlawful Landlords – Capturing thermal signatures of illegal tenants in sheds because renting out sheds is illegal in London, England. (Pitney Bowes Crime Solution)
199. Predictive Policing – Patrolling Mapping clusters of burglaries or other crimes assigning more police in those locations using heat maps or Getis-Ord General G and point patterns.
200. Missing Body Search – Narrowing down the search of a missing by finding subtle terrain anomalies in the ground using LiDAR.
201. Megan’s Law – Obeying the requirement for local law enforcement agencies to notify residents about the presence of certain sex offenders in their area by only contacting a buffered area of the offender’s residence.
202. Forensic GIS – Applying science and geographic information for the investigating of a crime – such as using GPS-recorded information in vehicles to prove the location at the scene of a crime. (Amazon Forensic GIS Book)
203. GeoEvent Notification – Avoiding high-crime areas with geofencing when delivering high-valued goods.
204. Extra Penalties – Dishing out extra penalties to criminals if convicted of selling drugs within a specified distance of a school property.
205. Illegal Smuggling – Monitoring cross-border smuggling activity by placing a GPS on a vehicle with a warrant to do so.
206. Fear of Crime – Interviewing individuals for fear of crime using GPS-enabled mobile computing.
207. Geographic Profiling – Using a connected series of crimes to determine the most probabilistic location of a criminal offender or offense – useful for finding serial criminals.
208. Stalking – Abusing GPS technology by stalking with a GPS receiver. A GPS jammer prevents positional monitoring.
209. First Response – Getting to a crime scene quicker with all the critical information needed in the field. (Incident Command Software)
210. Traffic Violations – Collecting and mapping traffic incident to assess if units should be spread out or concentrated in certain locations.
211. Open Air Drug Markets – Uncovering relationship between crimes and the location of open air drug markets based on analogous crimes throughout other communities
212. Ankle Monitor – Homing in on those under house arrest or parole. GPS bracelets only have value if you know where they are going.
14. Defense/Military GIS Applications
213. Augmented Reality Sandtable (ARES) – Improving battlespace visualization with projected GIS data on a sandtable. (Augmented Reality)
214. Terrorism Search – Finding Osama Bin Laden using remote sensing imagery with biogeographic theory (distance-decay theory and island biogeography theory). (Finding Osama Bin Laden)
215. Anti-aircraft – Answering anti-aircraft gun reach using 3D dome layers to avoid dangerous airspace (Anti-aircraft)
216. Safe Landings– Parachuting from the skies safely by evaluation the underlying surroundings of the area.
217. Intelligence Data Integration – Overlaying accurate geographic data for battlefield application and make life saving decisions
218. Combat Flight Planning Software (CFPS) – Previewing combat routes, weapon delivery and air drop planning in Falcon View. (Falcon View)
219. Reconnaissance Satellites – Spying on enemies with satellites – from Corona in 1959 to the tiny CubeSat’s being used today.
220. Base Construction Planning – Constructing a base site without it being visible from nearby major roads using the 3D skyline tool.
221. GEOINT – Revealing human activity through the use of geospatial investigation and ultraviolet to microwave imagery.
222. Military Simulation – Simulating ground vehicle in a highly realistic virtual world. (Vortex Software)
223. US Army Corps of Engineers – Delivering vital public and military engineering services keeping geospatial information in mind. (US Army Corps of Engineers)
224. Pigeon Mapping – Spying on enemies in World War II with the Bavarian Pigeon Corps – a flock of pigeons equipped with cameras.
225. Chokepoint – Safeguarding chokepoints like bridges or dams where critical infrastructure converge – explosions here would cause multiple effects.
226. Bird Strike – Flying safely through the Bird Avoidance Model (BAM) – a temporal raster grids equal to the sum of the mean bird mass for all species present.
227. Uranium Depletion – Mapping depleted uranium and preventing it from getting into the wrong hands.
228. President Assassination – Preventing assassinations by understanding the logistics of a past one. (Assassination Prevention)
229. Mobile Command Modeling – Setting up shop by finding the most optimal mobile command location.
230. Common Operating Picture – Getting everyone on the same page with a Common Operating Picture.
231. Military Mission Planning – Increasing operational awareness to helicopter pilots through 3D for conducting ingress and egress movement.
232. Locational Intelligence – Creating safety and danger areas for ground-to-ground weapons (Surface Danger Zones) and air-to-ground Weapon Danger Zone. (Range Management Toolkit (RMTK)
233. United Nations Peacekeeping – Peacekeeping by means of having the geographic necessary for humanitarian aid, developing peace in war-torn countries and providing the necessary support.
234. Critical Features – Identifying threats to homeland security by collecting knowledge of the built and cultural environments.
235. Tactical Planning – Assessing risks and hazards to tactically plan in response to terrorism and emergency situations.
236. Motion Video – Capturing georeferenced video to assess anything such as operational status of an industrial plant, bomb damage on a target or length of a runway. (GeoMedia Motion Video Analyst)
237. Homeland Security – Addressing vulnerabilities and formulating preparedness measures in case of emergency.
238. Virtual Reality – Simulating military and training in a 3D environment using GIS data.
239. Attack Modelling – Modeling a potential attack to legitimize the needs and have policy makers truly understand the consequences of an attack with preparedness expenditures.
240. Helicopter Landing – Inventorying potential landing zones to helicopters unseen, unheard and on flat terrain.
241. Guard Posting – Posting armed guards in optimal locations to eliminate chokepoints.
242. 3D Fences – Building security fences with post interval and number of wires/boards with heights in a 3D GIS environment.
243. War Maps – Familiarizing oneself with the enemy defenses and territory by mapping strategic attacks.
244. World Trade Center – Responding to terrorist attacks including real-time data delivery, victim tracking, facility and resource vulnerability, data availability, implementation, environmental exposure and air monitoring (World Trade Center GIS Response)
245. Georeferenced Video – Cataloging and retrieving full motion video using the ArcGIS Full Motion Video Add-In or Hexagon Geospatial GeoMedia Motion GeoVideo Analyst.
246. Detecting IED – Monitoring disturbed surfaces one day to next to find Improvised Explosive Devices
247. Logistics – Responding to military and security decisions with timely logistics and support.
248. Camouflage Detection – Carrying out early reconnaissance missions during war using near-infrared.
249. Military Grid Reference System – Locating points on the Earth with from three parts – grid zone designator, square identifier and numerical location.
15 Disaster GIS Applications
250. Richter Scale – Depicting earthquakes on a 3D globe like spikes on a porcupine for each reading on the Richter scale. (3D Richter Scale Map)
251. Shared Operations – Responding to disasters with quickness and reliability using a Common Operating Picture and cloud services (Cloud GIS for Disaster Monitoring)
252. Chernobyl Exclusion Zone – Buffering a radius of 18.6 miles (30 km) which is now known as the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.
253. Landslide Vulnerability – Dodging landslides with relief maps and 3D analysis.
254. Hurricane Response – Sidestepping the threat of hurricanes by tracking historical hurricane paths and through better disaster response/assistance.
255. Earthquake Prediction – Obtaining earthquake signatures measuring subduction events with GRACE satellite and the geoid. (Earthquake Prediction)
256. Coastal Surges – Estimating risk in three steps using HAZUS software by FEMA.
257. Citizen Alert – Guaranteeing protection of citizens by delivering geo-targeted alerts on mobile. (FME Server Real-Time Earthquake Reporting)
258. What-if Scenarios – Determining higher likelihood events based on historical data and spatial analysis.
259. Evacuation – Evaluating evacuation capabilities neighborhoods may face and generating effective design.
260. Oil Spill – Degreasing oil spills by identifying current direction and rate of oil movement.
261. Tornado Warning Siren – Safeguarding residents with effective siren coverage in tornado alley. (Tornado Warning Siren Modelling)
262. Fire Severity – Prioritizing prevention and planning efforts during forest fires.
263. Flood Forecasting – Simulating with stream discharge hydrographs with variations of water over time.
264. Tornado Alley – Finding patterns of historical tornadoes in Tornado Alley.
265. Avalanche Modeling – Uncovering areas prone to avalanches by assessing high slopes with sparse vegetation for residential planning, ski resorts and highway safety planning.
266. Tsunami Damage – Identifying high risk areas for tsunami damage
267. Emergency Shelter – Allocating emergency shelter at time of disaster
268. Consequences Assessment Tool Set (CATS) – Analyzing damage to the environment, the exposed population, and provides real-time resource allocation information to mitigate the consequences. (Consequences Assessment Tool Set)
269. Vulnerability to Natural Hazards – Deselecting hazard-prone land for more resilient communities through smart land planning.
270. Search and Rescue – Rescuing missing persons drones using small, highly maneuverable unmanned aerial vehicles (drones).
271. Volcanic Ash – Rendering volcanic ash clouds in 3D for their dispersion of spillages underwater.
272. Earthquake Epicenter/Hypocenter – Establishing the epicenter, hypocenters, faults and lineaments, radius and frequency of earthquakes.
273. Volcano Activity – Monitoring thermal emission from the volcano’s summit in Iceland using Landsat’s Thermal Infrared.
274. Disaster Warning – Alerting citizens before a large-scale earthquake happens with a new generation of inter-operable early warning systems for multiple hazards. (DEWS – Distant Early Warning System for Tsunamis – uDig)
275. Earthquake Assistance – Assisting in the aftermath of the massive Ecuador earthquake by listing “Safe Place” locations from government listings. (Waze Community Assistance)
276. Disaster Debris – Estimating debris amounts to better prepare and respond to a major debris generating event.
277. Earthquake-Landslide Susceptibility – Mapping the susceptibility of earthquake induced landslides using an artificial neural networks and factors such as slope, aspect, curvature and distance from drainage. (Earthquake-Landslide Susceptibility Using Neural Networks)
16. Ecology GIS Applications
278. Telemetry – Collecting GPS locations from collared mammals for the purpose of storing, displaying and analyzing their coordinates.
279. Habitat Suitability – Factoring in all the variables to understand the habitat that animals select and avoid using linear regression.
280. Land Facet Corridor Analysis – Identifying linkages between wildlife and landscapes. (Land Facet Corridor Analysis)
281. Landscape Fragmentation Tools (LFT) – Classifying land cover types into forest fragmentation categories – patch, edge, perforated, and core. (Landscape Fragmentation Tools LFT)
282. Migration Patterns – Simulating the East African wildebeest migration patterns for the Serengeti–Mara ecosystem in East Africa.
283. Path Metrics – Calculates turn angles, step lengths, bearings, time intervals for a point time series dataset using GME. (Geospatial Modelling Environment – GME)
284. DNA Traits – Mapping the richness, distribution and diversity of organisms on the landscape based on molecular marker (DNA).
285. Surui Tribe – Equipping the Surui tribe with geo-tagging equipment to put an end to the deforestation and cultural devastation in their section of the Brazilian rain forest. (Surui Tribe)
286. Species Biodiversity – Gauging over time a decrease in biodiversity or an abundance of species (invasive or disturbance-increasing) using temporal GIS. (Refractions Biodiversity BC)
287. Honey Bees – Stimulating spatial thinking processes by analyzing relationships between environmental characteristics and honey bee health and abundance (GIS Honey Bee Research)
288. Elk Ranges – Estimating an average home range for an entire herd of mammals using the Minimum Convex Polygon in Hawth’s Tools.
289. Anthropogenic Disturbances – Understanding the effects of transmission line construction by monitoring mammals with helicopter surveys. Get to the choppa!
290. Migratory Birds – Cross-referencing telemetry GPS migratory (Osprey) bird locations with Langley Air Force Base flying operations in an effort to reduce an aircraft strike. (NASA Langley Research – Bird/Wildlife Aircraft Strike Hazard)
291. Shannon’s H Diversity Index – Measuring mathematically species diversity and richness in a community.
292. Microclimates – Analyzing exposure to sunlight with aspect data as an indication of microclimates and species occurrence.
293. Topographic Ruggedness Index – Estimating terrain heterogeneity which is useful for predicting which habitats are used by species
294. De-Extinction – Bringing extinct species back to life and marking their previous habitats – like the passenger pigeon from 5 billion birds to zero in a couple of decades. (De-extinction)
295. Sky View – Maximizing the portion of visible sky and understanding potential forest habitat.
296. FragStats – Computing a wide variety of landscape metrics for categorical map patterns. (FragStats)
297. Topographic Position Index – Classifying the landscape into slope position and land-form category (SAGA GIS TPI)
298. Global Ecology Land Units – Characterizing distinct physical environments and associated land cover of global ecosystems (USGS). (Global Ecology Land Units)
299. Biogeography – Studying ecosystems in geographic space and through (geological) time along geographic gradients of latitude, elevation, isolation and habitat area.
300. Species Modelling – Running the Maximum Entropy Model (MAXENT). (QGIS Species Distribution Modelling (QSDM) plugin)
301. Flocking Birds – Mimicking flocking birds in a system of interactive parts using Agent Based Modeling. (NetLogo Flocking Birds)
302. Risk of Extinction – Describing existing conditions of habitat and predicting risk of extinctions, chance of recovery and mitigation measures – such as prohibiting hunting.
303. Habitat Priority Planner – Prioritizing conservation, restoration, and planning through NOAA’s Habitat Priority Planner. (Habitat Priority Planner)
304. DNA Barcoding – Attaching a specific location when barcoding life. Smithsonian Institution national Museum of Natural History – (DNA Barcoding – Natural History)
305. Society for Conservation GIS (SCGIS) – Assisting conservationists worldwide through community involvement and for the conservation of natural resources and cultural heritage. (SCGIS)
306. Sanctuary Ecologically Significant Areas – Delineating remarkable, representative and/or sensitive marine habitats, communities and ecological processes as SESAs. (Sanctuary Ecological Significant Areas)
307. Mammal Magnetic Alignment – Discovering how deer can sense magnetism through satellite image analysis and field observations of body alignments of deer beds in snow. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2008)
308. Sustainable Populations Counts – Counting polar bears and their geographic distribution analyzing two satellite images over time.
309. Crocodile Eggs – Monitoring in real-time factors like temperature and humidity for crocodile eggs. (Crocodile Eggs Real-Time Monitoring)
310. Into the Okavango – Trekking the Okavango in a journal style map – the world’s last great wetland wildernesses and UNESCO World Heritage Site. (Into the Okavango)
311. World Animal Protection – Becoming more resilient from future disasters. (World Animal Protection)
312. Linear Directional Mean – Determining the trend for the movement of elk and moose in a stream valley could calculate the directional trend of migration routes for the two species.
313. Wa-Tor Predator-Prey Simulation – Simulating ecological predator-prey populations with randomness and rule-based responses.
314. Golden Eagle Tracking – Tracking Golden eagle populations using a Biodiversity Tracking System in Manifold GIS.
315. Earth Trends Modeler – Assessing long term climate trends, measuring seasonal trends in phenology, and decomposing image time series to seek recurrent patterns in space and time in IDRISI TerraSet.
316. Ecological Barrier – Marking physically isolated barriers between species.
317. Geotagging Photos – Specifying wildlife photo locations through geotagging and streamlining the importing process with ArcPhoto.
17. Economics GIS Applications
318. Spatial Econometrics – Intersecting spatial analysis with economics. (GeoDa)
319. World Economic Outlook – Projecting the future economy and key macroeconomic indicators with the World Economic Outlook – IMF (World Economic Outlook)
320. Goods Flow – Illustrating the flow of people or goods from point to point based on values with desire lines. (Maptitude Flow Lines)
321. Globalization – Measuring the degree and extent of economic globalization using international trade data through time.
322. The Thünen Model – Distributing the production themselves in space incorporating costs of transport and factor mobility.
323. Economic Freedom – Mapping economic freedom throughout the world – an annual guide published by The Wall Street Journal and The Heritage Foundation (Economic Freedom Heat Map)
324. Geographic Portfolio – Diversifying your stock portfolio geographically for different countries and stock markets of the world.
325. Global Trade – Exporting goods start at a location and ends up in another.
326. Geographic Innovation Index – Investigating the relations between geographic proximity to innovation resources and stock returns. (Geographic Innovation Index)
327. Economic Base Indicator – Viewing economic indicators for business, industry and demography based on radial, drive and proximity.
328. Thematic Mapping – Portraying economic data like unemployment and labor information in time-series thematic maps because maps speak to people
329. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) – Carving out boundaries for sovereign rights regarding the exploration of marine resources below the surface of the sea
330. Gross Domestic Product – Creating continuous area cartograms. (Cartogram QGIS Plugin)
331. Global Transition to a New Economy – Prioritizing human well-being through a crowd-sourced sustainable projects map. (Global Transition to a New Economy)
332. Trade Area – Delineating the geographic area where a certain percentage of a store’s customers live.
333. Economic Costs of Pollution – Assessing greener growth options and the costs of pollution in India by understanding the current state of environment degradation.
18. Education GIS Applications
334. Campus Navigation – Navigate through a university campus with online mapping applications.
335. Neogeography – Opening the floodgates for individuals to create their own maps, on their own terms and by combining elements of an existing toolset (New Geography – Andrew Turner)
336. Projection Art – Investigating our Earth by understanding map projections. (National Geographic – Projection Art)
337. Macroscope – Seeing through the macroscope – our earth as a whole rather than be taken apart In their constituents. (Macroscope)
338. Bus Services – Assessing which addresses in proximity to a school are eligible for busing.
339. Safe Routes to School Mapping Toolkit – Deciding the safest route to school.
340. Geospatial Revolution – Captivating audiences with the Penn State Geospatial Revolution
341. Cartographic Modelling – Using map algebra to depict the relationships of transportation and geography on access to adult literacy centers in Philadelphia. (Map Algebra – Dana Tomlin)
19. Energy GIS Applications
342. Nuclear Power Risk – Conceptualizing nuclear power plant radioactive release with evacuation time and population exposed.
343. Marine Renewable Energy – Seeing the ocean of information with wave heights and wind for electric dam selection.
344. Concession – Putting concession licenses that give a company the right to drill for oil or gas and exploratory drilling boreholes on a map.
345. World Power Types – Seeing how much of the world is being powered by fossil fuels, nuclear and renewable sources. (What Powers the World?)
346. Nuclear Waste Site Selection – Safeguarding people with proper nuclear waste disposal
347. Water Yields and Scarcity – Estimating water yields and scarcity at a sub-watershed level to calculate hydroelectric potential to the year 2100. Water Scarcity with Ecosystem Services Modeler IDRISI – The Ecosystem Services Modeler (ESM)
348. Access Limitation – Calculating access limitations for building like slope being a major factor for getting wagons up the hill to the site.
349. Coal Stockpiles – Capturing satellite imagery of frequent shots of open pit mines and resource stockpiles to better understand how much coal has been mined each month. (Coal Stockpiles)
350. Shale Gas Plays – Depicting current and prospective shale gas resource areas in shale basins from the Energy Information Association.
351. Dam Sites Selection – Comparing hypothetical dam sites by potential water storage to understand how land use/land cover is impacted.
352. Energy Consumption – Drawing out energy capacity and consumption on a map. (World Energy Consumption Map)
353. Wind Farm Site Selection – Selecting suitable wind farm by understanding wind power, transmission capacity, road access and developable land. (Fugro Site Selection)
354. Turbine Visibility – Discerning visibility of wind for potential changes on a landscape, such as the effect of adding wind farms, or the addition of a new building to an urban area.
355. Radar Interference – Calculating potential radar interference and conflicts between turbines and airport approach/landing surfaces with 3D analysis.
20. Engineering GIS Applications
356. Asset Management – Managing infrastructure data maintenance along with their lifecycle (GeoMedia Asset Management)
357. Building Permits – Helping the user determine whether or not a requested permit is in an historic district, an aquifer protection district, wetland, or floodplain.
358. CAD Interoperability – Integrating CAD data (DWG, DXF) into GIS and vice versa.
359. Construction Environmental Management Plan – Mitigating the potential negative impacts of engineering projects by identifying environmentally sensitive sites and mitigation measures.
360. COGO – Constructing points, spirals, curves and arcs with coordinate geometry.
361. Real-time Sensors – Monitoring carbon monoxide in real-time with GeoEvent Extension with set thresholds and alerts (Valarm Monitoring Company)
362. Augmented Reality – Pulling up engineering diagrams and real-time sensor networks to view water pressure or amperage. (Augmented Reality)
363. Cut & Fill – Carving out 3D cut and fills for major civil engineering projects such as major road constructions.
364. Department of Interior – Constructing dams, power plants, and canals for protecting water and water-related resources in the United States. (Bureau of Reclamation)
365. Facility Management – Optimizing energy efficiency with building automation services for a more comprehensive view of a building.
366. Artificial Dam – Damming a site artificially by raising the elevations along a dam site using a Euclidean distance grid and map algebra.
367. Development Area – Getting the big picture by tapping into GIS data like gentle slopes, and closeness to roads.
Next: 21 – 30
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